A preview of this study has been presented at a meeting of the European Society of Cardiology earlier this year. IL-9 KO downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression, whereas it upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, relieved vascular dysfunction, and decreased blood pressure in Ang II-infused mice. Acceptance to publication 31 days. Special Issues We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. We prospectively enrolled patients with HFrEF and performed flow cytometry for cell phenotyping. Both observational and experimental studies suggest that TMAO can cause endothelial inflammatory injury. Latest Articles More articles Review Article. Journal profile Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. MTX increased apoptosis as shown by the upregulation of cardiac caspase 3 immunostaining.