The and 9-km levels are indicated by dotted lines in a and b , respectively. This evolution is generally consistent with the findings of previous studies Maloney and Hartmann ; Johnson et al. Khouider, : The deepening of tropical convection by congestus preconditioning. Dazlich, : Diurnal variability of the hydrologic cycle in a general circulation model. Composite date ranges are a 7—13 Oct and b 13—16 Nov end dates are inclusive. Namely, moistening of the low—midtroposphere Fig. The waning of subsidence and horizontal-advective drying, while cumulus moistening persists, orchestrates the evolution of the moisture tendency, indicating the key role of large-scale circulation changes. Composite date ranges are a 7—13 Oct and b 11—16 Nov end dates are inclusive. This diurnal cycle is manifest in a daytime growth of cumulus clouds in both depth and areal coverage in response to oceanic diurnal warm layers, which drive a daytime increase of the air—sea fluxes of heat and moisture.