Ultimately these holehole bushi echo the individual and collective memories of these people Following his own internment in a detention center during WWII, Urata collected and preserved the holehole bushi of the aging issei. How much variance is possible? Sometimes the text is similarly hard to follow as Odo moves circularly around points, continually returning to the arduousness of this life for the issei. Individual articles are the copyright of their authors. To be sure, in the Conclusion, Odo once again stresses that through holehole bushi , we gain a more accurate picture of the life of these immigrants. Despite these shortcomings, Odo successfully argues the importance of holehole bushi and indeed hopes to inspire further such studies on folksongs as depositories of immigrant identity xxviii.