IKRAM, another important Islamic organisation, was absent from the rally — it had given its qualified support for UEC recognition, with a list of conditions. But a significant portion of them view Islam as their core identity whatever this implies. Notify me of new posts by email. The speakers at the rally spoke on different issues with different tones, and not all of them are outright racists nor narrow Islamists. Opponents of racism in Malaysia need to understand that proponents of racial politics do believe in race—and only by understanding the appeal of racial thinking can racism be defeated. Hence, it is insufficient to analyse Malay anxiety as only a result of political competition or religious conservatism, without looking into the rapid socio-cultural changes experienced by Malay Muslims. Two leading scholars on the ideological and institutional legacies Pakatan Harapan inherits from the BN regime. Such political mobilisations have forced both Malaysian and Indonesian governments to contain them.